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How Old Is Usa Related Questions VideoMiley Cyrus - Party In The U.S.A. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America, consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. The United States of America declared independence from Britain on July 4, Which means it is years old. Main articles: History of the United States (–), History of the United States (–), and United States in the s Cuban Missile Crisis a U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Cuba, showing Soviet nuclear missiles, their transports and tents for fueling and maintenance. Watch full episodes of current and classic USA shows online. Plus find clips, previews, photos and exclusive online features on ungoutdecoree.com USA Sci-Fi Theater; USA Thursday Game of the Week (–83) USA Tuesday Night Fights (–98) USA Up All Night (–98) USA Updates (–) USA World Premiere Movie (; banner for TV movies produced exclusively for, or co-produced by, USA) You! Magazine (–85) The Web (–99) Woman's Day USA (–83) World. Making slavery a central Hindernis Auf Englisch goal energized Republicans in the North, as well as their enemies, the anti-war Copperhead Democrats. This permitted the development of an American spirit distinct from that of its European founders. Income inequality remains at record highs however, Horror Spiele Kostenlos the top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income. If you use the date that they won the American Revolution, then that is Sept 3, That would make the US years old ( in September). If you use the date that the officially united to become the United States of America, that would be November 5, That would make the USA years old ( in November). America, referring to the United States, was officially years old on July 4, If one dates from the adoption of the Constitution in , the nation was years old. The first. 7/4/ · America is actually years old today. The Declaration of Independence was adopted and published on July 4, by the Continental Congress and delegates began signing it later that .
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The US also has a federal district, five self-governing territories, and other possessions. The country is also a prominent political and cultural force internationally.
But how old is the US? The history of the United States of America dates back to the prehistory of the Native Americans and the colonial period.
Benefits for spouses or other survivors of a family member who's passed. Supplemental Security Income SSI. If you receive or will receive Social Security benefits, you may want to open a "my Social Security" account.
This online account is a service from the SSA that allows you to keep track of and manage your SSA benefits. You can also make changes to your Social Security record.
Contact Social Security Administration directly. Read up on how to correct calculation errors. Find out if your pension is covered if the company defaults.
See if there's an unclaimed pension owed to you or someone you know. If your job is covered by a traditional pension plan, make sure you get the pension amount you're owed.
Find ways to protect yourself. For questions or complaints about your plan, contact your human resources office. Insures most private-sector defined-benefit pensions.
These are plans that typically pay a certain amount each month after you retire. The headquarters for the United States of America? Is United States of America a phrasal compound?
What Country with best air quality? Is Minnesota in South America? When did America get its title the United States of America? What has the author J Fenimore Cooper written?
Does America have 51 states? The United States of America has 50 States. What are the large countries in North America? What was the United States called in ?
When you look at all this historical information and truth behind the building of this country that we call America ; one must come to the very crude conclusion.
This article allows us to see why we are who we are today. This information that is part of who we are, explains why we are still a divided Nation.
FOR A HOUSE AGAINST ITSELF CANNOT STAND. Whether we accept it or not. Our history is intertwined with all these different people, from different lands.
History speaks for itself, at this moment America is on trial!! ILTS Health Education : Test Practice and Study Guide.
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As World War I raged in Europe from , President Woodrow Wilson took full control of foreign policy, declaring neutrality but warning Germany that resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare against American ships supplying goods to Allied nations would mean war.
Germany decided to take the risk and try to win by cutting off supplies to Britain through the sinking of ships such as the RMS Lusitania ; the U.
Pershing 's American Expeditionary Forces arrived at the rate of 10, a day, while Germany was unable to replace its losses.
S President Warren G. The result was Allied victory in November President Wilson demanded Germany depose the Kaiser and accept his terms in the famed Fourteen Points speech.
Wilson dominated the Paris Peace Conference but Germany was treated harshly by the Allies in the Treaty of Versailles as Wilson put all his hopes in the new League of Nations.
Wilson refused to compromise with Senate Republicans over the issue of Congressional power to declare war, and the Senate rejected the Treaty and the League.
In the s the U. The United States Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles imposed by its Allies on the defeated Central Powers ; instead, the United States chose to pursue unilateralism.
While public health facilities grew rapidly in the Progressive Era, and hospitals and medical schools were modernized,  the nation in lost , lives to the Spanish flu pandemic.
In , the manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol were prohibited by the Eighteenth Amendment , Prohibition. The result was that in cities illegal alcohol became a big business, largely controlled by racketeers.
The second Ku Klux Klan grew rapidly in —25, then collapsed. Immigration laws were passed to strictly limit the number of new entries.
The s were called the Roaring Twenties due to the great economic prosperity during this period. Jazz became popular among the younger generation, and thus the decade was also called the Jazz Age.
The Great Depression — and the New Deal — were decisive moments in American political, economic, and social history that reshaped the nation.
During the s, the nation enjoyed widespread prosperity, albeit with a weakness in agriculture. A financial bubble was fueled by an inflated stock market , which later led to the Stock Market Crash on October 29, In , Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D.
Roosevelt promised "a New Deal for the American people", coining the enduring label for his domestic policies.
The result was a series of permanent reform programs including Relief for the unemployed, assistance for the elderly, jobs for young men, social security, unemployment insurance, public housing, bankruptcy insurance, farm subsidies, and regulation of financial securities.
State governments added new programs as well and introduced the sales tax to pay for them. Ideologically the revolution established modern liberalism in the United States and kept the Democrats in power in Washington almost continuously for Three decades thanks to the New Deal Coalition of ethnic Whites, Blacks, blue-collar workers, labor unions, and white Southerners.
It provided relief to the long-term unemployed through numerous programs, such as the Works Progress Administration WPA and for young men, the Civilian Conservation Corps.
Large scale spending projects designed to provide private sector construction jobs and rebuild the infrastructure were under the purview of the Public Works Administration.
The Second New Deal was a turn to the left in —36, building up labor unions through the Wagner Act. Unions became a powerful element of the merging New Deal Coalition , which won reelection for Roosevelt in , , and by mobilizing union members, blue-collar workers, relief recipients, big city machines, ethnic, and religious groups especially Catholics and Jews and the white South, along with blacks in the North where they could vote.
Roosevelt seriously weakened his second term by a failed effort to pack the Supreme Court, which had been a center of conservative resistance to his programs.
Most of the relief programs were dropped after in the s when the conservatives regained power in Congress through the Conservative Coalition.
Of special importance is the Social Security program , begun in The economy basically recovered by , but had a sharp, short recession in —38; long-term unemployment, however, remained a problem until it was solved by wartime spending.
In an effort to denounce past U. The Japanese crippled American naval power with the attack on Pearl Harbor , destroying many battleships.
Into the Jaws of Death : The Normandy landings began the Allied march toward Germany from the west.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa , November In the Depression years, the United States remained focused on domestic concerns while democracy declined across the world and many countries fell under the control of dictators.
Imperial Japan asserted dominance in East Asia and in the Pacific. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy militarized and threatened conquests, while Britain and France attempted appeasement to avert another war in Europe.
Roosevelt positioned the U. Japan tried to neutralize America's power in the Pacific by attacking Pearl Harbor on December 7, , which catalyzed American support to enter the war.
The main contributions of the U. Much of the focus in Washington was maximizing the economic output of the nation. This was achieved by tens of millions of workers moving from low-productivity occupations to high-efficiency jobs, improvements in productivity through better technology and management, and the move into the active labor force of students, retired people, housewives, and the unemployed, and an increase in hours worked.
It was exhausting; leisure activities declined sharply. People tolerated the extra work because of patriotism, the pay, and the confidence that it was only "for the duration", and life would return to normal as soon as the war was won.
Most durable goods became unavailable, and meat, clothing, and gasoline were tightly rationed. In industrial areas housing was in short supply as people doubled up and lived in cramped quarters.
Prices and wages were controlled, and Americans saved a high portion of their incomes, which led to renewed growth after the war instead of a return to depression.
The Allies saw Germany as the main threat and gave the highest priority to Europe. After losing Pearl Harbor and in the Philippines to the Japanese, and drawing the Battle of the Coral Sea May , the American Navy inflicted a decisive blow at Midway June American ground forces assisted in the North African Campaign that eventually concluded with the collapse of Mussolini's fascist government in , as Italy switched to the Allied side.
A more significant European front was opened on D-Day , June 6, , in which American and Allied forces invaded Nazi-occupied France from Britain.
On the home front , mobilization of the U. The wartime production boom led to full employment, wiping out this vestige of the Great Depression.
Indeed, labor shortages encouraged industry to look for new sources of workers, finding new roles for women and blacks. However, the fervor also inspired anti-Japanese sentiment , leading to internment of Japanese Americans.
The terms of this executive order resulted in some , people of Japanese descent living in the US removed from their homes and placed in internment camps.
Two-thirds of those interned were American citizens and half of them were children. United States Supreme Court case. Research and development took flight as well, best seen in the Manhattan Project , a secret effort to harness nuclear fission to produce highly destructive atomic bombs.
Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs.
The first nuclear device ever detonated was an implosion-type bomb at the Trinity test , conducted at New Mexico's Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range on July 16, The Allies pushed the Germans out of France but faced an unexpected counterattack at the Battle of the Bulge in December.
The final German effort failed, and, as Allied armies in East and West were converging on Berlin, the Nazis hurriedly tried to kill the last remaining Jews.
The western front stopped short, leaving Berlin to the Soviets as the Nazi regime formally capitulated in May , ending the war in Europe.
Though the nation lost more than , military personnel and civilians,  the U. Participation in postwar foreign affairs marked the end of predominant American isolationism.
The awesome threat of nuclear weapons inspired both optimism and fear. Nuclear weapons were never again used in combat after the war ended, as both sides drew back from the brink and a "long peace" characterized the Cold War years, starting with the Truman Doctrine on May 22, There were, however, regional wars in Korea and Vietnam.
Following World War II, the United States emerged as one of the two dominant superpowers, the USSR being the other. Senate on a bipartisan vote approved U.
The primary American goal of — was to rescue Europe from the devastation of World War II and to contain the expansion of Communism, represented by the Soviet Union.
In , the United States replaced piecemeal financial aid programs with a comprehensive Marshall Plan , which pumped money into the economy of Western Europe, and removed trade barriers, while modernizing the managerial practices of businesses and governments.
Soviet head of state Joseph Stalin prevented his satellite states from participating, and from that point on, Eastern Europe, with inefficient centralized economies, fell further and further behind Western Europe in terms of economic development and prosperity.
In , the United States, rejecting the long-standing policy of no military alliances in peacetime, formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO alliance, which continues into the 21st century.
In response the Soviets formed the Warsaw Pact of communist states, leading to the " Iron Curtain ".
The threat of mutually assured destruction however, prevented both powers from nuclear war, and resulted in proxy wars, especially in Korea and Vietnam , in which the two sides did not directly confront each other.
President Dwight D Eisenhower, elected in a landslide as the first Republican president since , had a lasting impact on American life and politics.
He cut military spending by reliance on very high technology, such as nuclear weapons carried by long-range bombers and intercontinental missiles.
He gave strong support to the NATO alliance and built other alliances along similar lines, but they never were especially effective.
After Stalin died in he worked to obtain friendlier relationships with the Soviet Union. At home, he ended McCarthyism , expanded the Social Security program and presided over a decade of bipartisan comity.
He promoted civil rights cautiously, and sent in the Army when trouble threatened over racial integration in Little Rock Arkansas.
The angst about the weaknesses of American education led to large-scale federal support for science education and research.
In , the charismatic John F. Kennedy was elected as the first Roman Catholic President. The Kennedy clan brought a new life and vigor to the atmosphere of the White House.
His time in office was marked by such notable events as the acceleration of the United States' role in the Space Race , escalation of the American role in the Vietnam War , the Bay of Pigs Invasion , the Cuban Missile Crisis , the jailing of Martin Luther King Jr.
Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, , leaving the nation in profound shock. The climax of liberalism came in the mids with the success of President Lyndon B.
Johnson — in securing congressional passage of his Great Society programs. Gradually, liberal intellectuals crafted a new vision for achieving economic and social justice.
The liberalism of the early s contained no hint of radicalism, little disposition to revive new deal era crusades against concentrated economic power, and no intention to redistribute wealth or restructure existing institutions.
Internationally it was strongly anti-Communist. It aimed to defend the free world, to encourage economic growth at home, and to ensure that the resulting plenty was fairly distributed.
Their agenda-much influenced by Keynesian economic theory-envisioned massive public expenditure that would speed economic growth, thus providing the public resources to fund larger welfare, housing, health, and educational programs.
Johnson was rewarded with an electoral landslide in against conservative Barry Goldwater , which broke the decades-long control of Congress by the Conservative Coalition.
However, the Republicans bounced back in and elected Richard Nixon in Nixon largely continued the New Deal and Great Society programs he inherited; conservative reaction would come with the election of Ronald Reagan in Starting in the late s, institutionalized racism across the United States , but especially in the South , was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights Movement.
The activism of African-American leaders Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. For years African Americans would struggle with violence against them but would achieve great steps toward equality with Supreme Court decisions, including Brown v.
Board of Education and Loving v. Virginia , the Civil Rights Act of , the Voting Rights Act of , and the Fair Housing Act of , which ended the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between whites and blacks.
Martin Luther King Jr. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ;  in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.
Beginning in the late 18th century, American settlers began to expand westward ,  prompting a long series of American Indian Wars.
The California Gold Rush of —49 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide  and the creation of additional western states.
Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the s. Irreconcilable sectional conflict regarding the enslavement of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.
The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately , soldiers as well as many civilians.
Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation , the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery.
Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April , each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment , which prohibited slavery.
Two other amendments were also ratified, ensuring citizenship for blacks and, at least in theory, voting rights for them as well.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, drove a wedge between North and South again.
Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans.
They persisted until the Compromise of when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of Southern white Democrats, calling themselves " Redeemers ", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction.
From to , the Redeemers established so-called Jim Crow laws , disenfranchising most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region.
Blacks faced racial segregation , especially in the South. In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.
The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life. The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from to at least Additionally, the Trail of Tears in the s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians.
This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Puerto Rico , Guam , and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish—American War.
Virgin Islands were purchased from Denmark in Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists.
Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt , John D. Rockefeller , and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in the railroad , petroleum , and steel industries.
Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. Morgan playing a notable role. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest.
The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in until when it joined the war as an "associated power" alongside the Allies of World War I , helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers.
In , President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.
In , the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage. After his election as president in , Franklin D.
Roosevelt responded with the New Deal. At first effectively neutral during World War II , the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March through the Lend-Lease program.
On December 7, , the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor , prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers and, the following year, to intern about ,  U.
During the war, the United States was one of the " Four Powers "  who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union, and China.
The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization.
As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war.
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism.
While the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even occasionally supporting authoritarian right-wing regimes.
At home, the U. After a surge in female labor participation, especially in the s, by , the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.
Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of , sought to end racial discrimination.
The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms.
After the Cold War , the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in , when Iraq invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait , an ally of the United States.
Fearing the spread of instability, in August, President George H. Bush launched and led the Gulf War against Iraq; waged until January by coalition forces from 34 nations, it ended in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and restoration of the monarchy.
Originating within U. On September 11, , Al-Qaeda terrorist hijackers flew passenger planes into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.
Bush launched the War on Terror , which included a war in Afghanistan and the —11 Iraq War. Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,  widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,  and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve  led to the mids housing bubble , which culminated with the financial crisis , the nation's largest economic contraction since the Great Depression.
In , President Obama led efforts to pass the Affordable Care Act , the most sweeping reform to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades.
In the presidential election of , Republican Donald Trump was elected as the 45th president of the United States. The populated territories of Puerto Rico , American Samoa , Guam , Northern Mariana Islands , and U.
The United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by total area land and water , ranking behind Russia and Canada and nearly equal to China.
The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.
The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.
The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.
The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature. The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types.
To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate.
The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.
Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as well as its territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.
There are 62 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Environmental issues include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife , logging and deforestation ,   and international responses to global warming.
The United States is ranked 24th among nations in the Environmental Performance Index. Census Bureau officially estimated the country's population to be ,, in with an unofficial statistical adjustment to ,, as of July 1, The formal U.
Census population will be reported to the president in early According to the Bureau's U. Population Clock , on December 25, , the U.
In the median age of the United States population was In , there were almost 90 million immigrants and U. In , out of the U. Until , the United States led the world in refugee resettlement for decades, admitting more refugees than the rest of the world combined.
English specifically, American English is the de facto national language of the United States. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.
In Puerto Rico, Spanish is more widely spoken than English. According to the American Community Survey , in some million people out of the total U.
More than 37 million spoke Spanish at home, making it the second most commonly used language in the United States.
Other languages spoken at home by one million people or more include Chinese 2. The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate education , are Spanish around 7.
Other commonly taught languages include Latin , Japanese , American Sign Language , Italian , and Chinese. The First Amendment of the U. Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.
The United States has the world's largest Christian population. Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans.
Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.
By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC reported that the United States had an average life expectancy at birth of The recent decline, primarily among the age group 25 to 64, was largely due to record highs in the drug overdose and suicide rates; the country still has one of the highest suicide rates among wealthy countries.
Increasing obesity in the United States and improvements in health and longevity outside the U. In , the United States had the lowest life expectancy among Japan, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and seven nations in western Europe.
In , coronary artery disease , lung cancer , stroke , chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.
Low back pain , depression , musculoskeletal disorders , neck pain , and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most harmful risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking , obesity, high blood pressure , high blood sugar , physical inactivity , and alcohol use.
Alzheimer's disease , drug abuse, kidney disease , cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted per-capita rates.
Government-funded health care coverage for the poor Medicaid , established in and for those age 65 and older Medicare , begun in is widely available to Americans who meet the programs' income and age restrictions.
Nonetheless, the United States remains the only developed nation without a system of universal health care. The bill and its ultimate effect are still issues of controversy in the United States.
American public education is operated by state and local governments and regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants.
In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven generally, kindergarten or first grade until they turn 18 generally bringing them through twelfth grade , the end of high school ; some states allow students to leave school at 16 or Of Americans 25 and older, The United States has many private and public institutions of higher education.
The majority of the world's top universities, as listed by various ranking organizations, are in the U. In , U21 , a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the United States first in the world for breadth and quality of higher education, and 15th when GDP was a factor.
The United States is a federal republic of 50 states , a federal district , five territories and several uninhabited island possessions.
It is a federal republic and a representative democracy "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law.
In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government : federal, state, and local. The local government 's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments.
In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.
Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. Article One protects the right to the writ of habeas corpus.
The Constitution has been amended 27 times;  the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights , and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights.
All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided.
The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison  in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.
The House of Representatives has voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population.
Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The District of Columbia and the five major U.
The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every two years.
The president is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.
The 50 states are the principal political divisions in the country. Each state holds jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, where it shares sovereignty with the federal government.
They are subdivided into counties or county equivalents and further divided into municipalities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, Washington, D.
Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their representatives and senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment.
The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty.
American Indians are U. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.
Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U.